如:Please help me .请帮帮我

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★ 合成法

英语构词法中把两个单词连在一起合成一个新词,前一个词修饰或限定后一个词,这样的方法就是合成法。

1 合成名词

⒈ 名词+名词

weekend周末

⒉ 名词+动词

daybreak黎明

⒊ 名词+动名词

handwriting书法

⒋ 名词+及物动词+er/or

pain-killer止痛药

⒌ 名词+介词+名词

sister-in-law嫂子

⒍ 代词+名词

she-wolf母狼

⒎ 动词+名词

typewriter打字机

⒏ 动名词+名词

reading-room阅览室

⒐ 现在分词+名词

flying-fish飞鱼

⒑ 形容词+名词

freshman大一新生

⒒ 副词+动词

outlook景色,风光

⒓ 介词+名词

afterbrain后脑

2 合成形容词

⒈ 名词+形容词

bloodred血红的

⒉ 名词+现在分词

French-speaking讲法语的

⒊ 名词+to+名词

one-to-one一对一的

⒋ 名词+过去分词

man-made人造的

⒌ 数词+名词

one-way单行道的

⒍ 数词+名词+形容词

three-year-old三岁的

⒎ 数词+名词+ed

ten-storeyed十层的

⒏ 动词+副词

one-off 一次性的

⒐ 形容词+名词

high-quality高质量的

⒑ 形容词+名词+ed

noble-minded高尚的

⒒ 形容词+形容词

light-green浅绿色的

⒓ 形容词+现在分词

ordinary-looking相貌一般的

⒔ 副词+形容词

ever-green常青的

⒕ 副词+现在分词

hard-working辛勤的

⒖ 副词+过去分词

well-known著名的

⒗ 副词+名词

fast-food专门提供快餐服务的

⒘ 介词+名词

indoor室内的

3 合成动词

⒈ 名词+动词

sleep-walk梦游

⒉ 形容词+动词

white-wash粉刷

⒊ 副词+动词

overwhelm压倒,制服

4 合成副词

⒈ 形容词+名词

hotfoot匆忙地

⒉ 形容词+副词

everywhere到处

⒊ 副词+副词

however尽管如此

⒋ 介词+名词

beforehand事先

⒌ 介词+副词

forever永远

5 合成代词

⒈ 代词宾格+self

herself 她自己

⒉ 物主代词+self

myself 我自己

⒊ 形容词+名词

anything 一切

6 合成介词

⒈ 副词+名词

outside在……外面

⒉ 介词+副词

within在……之内

⒊ 副词+介词

into进入

★ 派生法

英语构词法中在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀,从而构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词的方法叫作派生法。

1 前缀

除少数英语前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;英语后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。

⒈ 表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。

如:agree同意→disagree不同意

fair公平的→unfair不公平的

possible可能的→impossible不可能的

understand理解→misunderstand误解

⒉ 表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词), anti- (反对;抵抗), auto- (自动), co- (共同), en- (使), inter- (互相), re- (再;又), sub- (下面的;次;小), tele- (强调距离)等。

如:co-worker 同事,帮手

enlarge 使变大

cooperate 合作

rewrite 重写

subway 地铁

2 后缀

给单词加后缀也是英语构词的一种重要方法。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。

⒈ 构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/ -or (从事某事的人),-ese (某地人),-ess (雌性),-ian (精通……的人),-ist (专业人员),-ment (性质;状态),-ness (性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。

如:differ不同于→difference区别

write写→writer作家

China中国→Chinese中国人

act表演→actress女演员

music音乐→musician音乐家

⒉ 构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词之后),-fy (使……化),-ize (使……成为)。

如:wide→widen加宽

beauty→beautify美化

pure→purify提纯

real→realize意识到

organ→organize组织

sharp→sharpen使变锋利

⒊ 构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,-able (有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en (多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern (方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less (表示否定),-like (像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y (表示天气)等。

如:nature自然→natural自然的

reason道理→reasonable有道理的

America美国→American美国的

China中国→Chinese中国人的

gold金子→golden金的

east东→eastern东方的

child孩子→childish孩子气的

snow雪→snowy有雪的

⒋ 构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s) (主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向)。

如:angry生气的→angrily生气地

to到→towards朝……,向……

east东方→eastward向东

⒌ 构成数词的后缀有-teen (十几),-ty (几十),-th (构成序数词)。

如:six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六

four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十

★ 转化法

英语构词法中把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法,有的名词可以作动词,有的形容词可以作副词或动词。

1 动词转化为名词

⒈ 意思没有变化

如:I think we'd better finish the talk now.我想我们的谈话最好现在结束。

⒉ 意思有一定变化

如:He is a man of strong build.他是一个体格健壮的汉子。

⒊ 构成短语

如:Let's have a look first. 我们先看一下吧。

2 名词转化为动词

⒈ 表示物体的

如:Have you booked the ticket?你订好票了吗?

⒉ 表示身体部位的

如:Hand in your papers please.请把你们的试卷交上来。

⒊ 表示一类人的

如:She nursed her husband back to health.她看护丈夫,使他恢复了健康。

⒋ 抽象名词

如:We breakfasted together.我们在一起吃了早餐。

3 形容词转化为动词

少数形容词可以转化为动词。

如:We will try our best to better our living conditions.我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。

4 副词转化为动词

有少数副词可以转化为动词。

如:Murder will out.恶事终必将败露。

5 形容词转化为名词

⒈ 表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词

如:The girl in black appears very beautiful.那个穿黑衣服的女孩子看上去非常漂亮。

⒉ 一些形容词如old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数。

如:We don't belong to the rich, but we dong't belong to the poor either. 我们不是有钱人,但我们也不是穷人。

★ 缩写和简写

1 截短法(缩略法)

将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变的英语构词法称为截短法,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。

⒈ 截头

如:telephone→phone

airplane→plane

⒉ 去尾

如:mathematics→maths

examination→exam

kilogram→kilo

laboratory→lab

taxicab→taxi

⒊ 截头去尾

如:influenza→flu

refrigerator→fridge

prescription→script

2 混合法(混成法)

英语构词还可以将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词,前半部分表属性,后半部分表主体。这样的英语构词法就是混合法。

如:news broadcast→newscast新闻广播

television broadcast→telecast电视播送

smoke and fog→smog烟雾

photo and graphy→photography摄影,摄影术

helicopter airport→heliport直升飞机场

3 首尾字母缩略法

用单词首尾字母组成一个新词的英语构词法叫做首尾字母缩略法。这种形式的英语构词生成的新词,读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。

如:Testing of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL托福

Teach English as a Foreign Language→TEFL

Teach English as a Second Language→TESL

Graduate Record Examination→GRE美国研究生入学考试

★ 陈述句

1 概念

陈述句用来叙述一个事实,句末标点用句号。有的陈述句表示肯定的意思,在说话、写文章中,对陈述语气的要求是多方面的,只会简单肯定和否定,不能满足表情达意的需要。因此,陈述句又分为肯定的陈述句和否定的陈述句,简称为肯定句(The Affirmative Sentence)和否定句(The Negative Sentence)。

2 基本句型

① 主语+连系动词+表语

② 主语+谓语(不及物动词)

③ 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语

④ 主语+谓语(及物动词)+间接宾语+直接宾语

⑤ 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾语补足语

3 分类

⒈ 肯定句:

在说话、写文章中,表示肯定的句子。

⒉ 否定句:

在说话、写文章中,表示否定的句子。

一般否定句

即含有“不、没有、完全不是,完全不”等否定意思的词的句子。

双重否定句

含有两个否定词的句子,例如:含有“没有.....不......”“,非.....不可......”等词语的句子,双重否定句表示肯定。

4 陈述句的否定形式

陈述句又分为肯定的陈述句和否定的陈述句,简称为肯定句和否定句。含否定词的句子称为否定句(legative Sentence),不含否定词的句子就称为肯定句。

如:Mr.Walker is an Englishman.(华克先生是英国人。一肯定句)

He is not an American.(他不是美国人。一否定句)

否定陈述句的表达方式基本上有下面的三种。

⒈ 全否定:用not,no,never,neither,none,nothing等否定。表示“完全不是,完全不”的意思。

如:He is not a worker.

Nothing is wrong with me.

⒉ 半否定句:在句子里用否定词hardly,scarcely,little,few, seldomrarely等。

如:I hardly see anything in the room.=I can see little in the room

注意:“all/both/every/each/+谓语”表示概念为“有的是,有的不是”

如:All of them are not students.=Some of them are students,some are not.

⒊ 宾语从句的否定形式:用在think,believe,suppose 引导的宾语从句里则否定主句。

如:I don't think he'll come.=He will not come in fact,I think.

5 陈述句的词序问题

肯定句:基本结构为主+谓语/主语+系动词+表语,但是在某些情况下主语和谓语可以倒装:

⒈ 如果虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were,had或should,可以把if省略掉,而将这三个词放于条件句主语前,构成倒装。

如:Should you be fired,your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.

⒉ 表示方位的副词或介词短语位于句首时,句子要全部倒装。副词有out,in,up,down,

away,off,here,there,now等;大部分介词短语位于句首,都有此种用法;这时句子的谓语动词往往是be,lie,come,walk,go,stand,lie等词。当表示地点的介词短语放句首时,注意:谓语多为be,lie,sit,stand,come,walk等不及物动词。

如:In the dark streets lie many lakes, some large enough to hold several English towns.

⒊ 对含有否定意义,半否定意义的副词或介词短语等放在句首时。这一类常见的副词有:hardly,scarcely,never,not,not only,not until,seldom,little,few,no longer, at no time,by no means,nowhere,in no case等。

如:Never before has the city been in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.

★ 疑问句

高考对疑问句的考查主要是对反义疑问句的考查。

1 概念

反义疑问句也叫附加疑问句,指的是在陈述句后面附加一个简短的一般疑问句,用于对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问或表示证实。

陈述部分与附加部分的动词时态和动词性质应保持一致,但是肯定和否定形式却彼此相反,即陈述部分为肯定式时,疑问句部分用否定式;陈述部分为否定式时,附加部分用肯定式。

2 反义疑问句主要分以下各种情况

反意疑问句由两部分构成:前一部分用陈述句形式,后一部分是一个附加在前一部分上的简短问句。陈述部分用肯定形式时,附加问句部分用否定形式,反之亦然。附加问句部分的动词形式及主语由陈述句决定,而且主语必须是代词。

⒈ 陈述部分的主语是名词时,附加问句的主语用相应的人称代词。

如:Your parents had a long talk with you last night,didn't they?

⒉ 陈述部分主语是表示人的不定代词时,反意疑问句的主语侧重全部用they,侧重个体用he。

如:No one was there that day,was he/were they?

⒊ 陈述部分主语是表示物的不定代词时,反意疑问句的主语用it。

如:Everything that he says is true,isn't it?

⒋ 陈述部分的主语是one时,反意疑问句的主语在正式的场合用one,在非正式场合用you。

如:One should be honest,shouldn't one/you?

⒌ 陈述部分主语是指示代词时,反意疑问句的主语要用it或they。

如:This is your car,isn't it?

Those are grapes,aren't they?

⒍ 陈述部分是there be 结构时,反意疑问句仍用there。

如:There was a hospital here,wasn't there?

⒎ 陈述部分有表示推测的情态动词must时,反意疑问句的动词与must后的动词一致。

如:They must be sleeping then,weren't they?

注意:must后接完成式,若表示对过去情况的推测,附加问句中动词用didn't;若表示对已完成情况的推测,用haven't或hasn't。

⒏ 陈述部分含有否定词时,反意疑问句用肯定式。

如:He is never late for school,is he?

They seldom clean the roomdo they?

注意:常见的否定词有no,never,nothing,nowhere,rarely,hardly,seldom,few,little等;若陈述部分有带否定意义词缀的派生词,如dislike,useless,unfair等,后面的附加问句仍用否定式。

⒐ 陈述部分是祈使句时,反意疑问句用will you或won't you。

如:Look at the blackboard,will/won't you?

Don't make any noise,will you?

注意:以Let's开头的祈使句,反意疑问句用shall we;以Let us/me开头的祈使句,反意疑问句用will you;陈述部分是否定的祈使句,反意疑问句用will you或can you都可以。

⒑ 陈述部分是并列句时,反意疑问句与邻近的分句一致。

如:She works hard and she is the best one in her factory,isn't she?

⒒ 陈述部分是复合句时,反意疑问句与主句一致。

如:When the teacher speaks in class,we have to keep quiet,don't we?

⒓ 陈述部分是否定转移句式时,反意疑问句与从句一致,且用肯定形式。

如:I don't think he will come,will he?

注意:在回答反意疑问句时,不管其陈述句部分是肯定的还是否定的,如果事实是肯定的,回答用”yes+肯定的简略句”;如果事实是否定的,回答用”no+否定的简略句”,形式要一致。陈述部分是否定形式时,答语中的yes译成”不”,no译成”是”。

如:—They haven't been told the truth,have they?

—Yes,they havehttps://m.163.com/dy/article/No,they haven't.

★ 祈使句

1 概念

用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句。祈使句的作用是要求、请求或命令、劝告、建议别人做或不做一件事。祈使句的句末一般用感叹号,但是有些祈使句的语气较弱,可以用句号结尾。

祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为一般现在时。

如:Go andwash your hands.

Be kind to our sister.

Watch your steps.

No parking

表示禁止的句式有:不准、不要、别.

2 表现形式

⒈ 肯定结构:

Do 型(即:动词原形(+宾语)+其它成分)。

如:Please have a seat here.

有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。

如:This way, please. = Go this way, please. 。

Be 型(即:Be + 表语(名词或形容词)+其它成分)。

如:Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子!

Let 型(即:Let+宾语+动词原形+其它成分)。

如:Let me help you. 让我来帮你。

⒉ 否定结构:

Do 型和 Be 型的否定式都是在句首加 don't 构成。

如:Don't forget me!

Don't be late for school!

Let 型的否定式有两种:“Don't + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。

如:Do't let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。

有些可用 no 开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。

如:No smoking!

No fishing!

3 祈使句类型

祈使句是用来向别人提出命令,建议或请求的句式.常见的祈使句有以下五种:

⒈ Let's 开头的祈使句

如: Let's say it in English.

⒉ 动词原形开头的祈使句

如:Listen to the teacher.

⒊ Shall I 开头的祈使句

如:Shall I carry the parcel for you ?

⒋ Will you 开头的祈使句

如:Will you come here early ?

⒌ 以 Please 开头的祈使句

如: Please take a message for him.

⒍ 带呼语的祈使句

如:Mary, come down here ! (对 mary 讲话,而不带呼语的且以动词原形开头的祈使句则对第二人称讲话)

⒎ 不让对方做某事, 英语用 " Don't "

如:Don't speak loud . 不要大声讲话。

Don't write in that way . 不要那样写。

⒏ "let"带头的祈使句是个常见的动词句型,它的主要用法有下列三种:

表示“建议”。 这个句型里的"let"后头紧跟着一个第一人称的代词宾语。

如:Let me try.

Let's do it.

Let me go and look for it.这个句型语气委婉,比直接的祈使句客气。

比较:Don't disturb him. 是直接命令,语气强烈

Let's not disturb him.

表示“警告”、“蔑视”、“威胁”等。 这种祈使句里的宾语也是第三人称为主。除了口气凶悍之外,有时还语带讽刺.

如:Let him try and he will expose(暴露) his inability(无力) to work on his own.

Let the invaders(侵略者)come and our armed forces will wipe(擦拭)them out in no time.

③ 用"let"的祈使句时,必须注意下列几点

⑴ "let" 的否定句有二。如果宾语是第三人称用"Don't let....."

如:Don't let this type of things happen again.

如果宾语是第一人称,则用 "Let......not"

如:It's raining now. Let's not go out until after the rain.

⑵ "Let"只适用于现在时态,可以有被动语态。

如:Let the recalcitrant criminals be sent to prison.

Let all the dedicated capable staff be promoted.

⑶ "Let"后头除了是不带"to"的不定式动词之外,还可以是某些适当的副词,如 out, in, down, alone 等。

如:Let the puppy out.

Open the windows and let the fresh air in.

The room is too sunny. Let the blinds down.

Let me alone, please.

⑷ 用"Let's"时,把谈话者的对象包括在内;用"Let us"时,并不包括对方。

如:Let's try it, shall we?

Let us do it by ourselves, will you?

从以上两个例句里的"will you",不难知道前者包括听话人,后者并没有。

4 句型转换:祈使句与陈述句的改写

⒈ 祈使句=You must…(陈述句)

如:Come here .过来。 =You must come here . 你必须过来。

Don't do that again. = You mustn't do that again 你一定不可以再那样做了。

⒉ Please +祈使句=Will you (please)…?(陈述句)

如:Please help me .请帮帮我。 =Will you (please) help me? 你愿意帮我的忙吗?

Come here on time ,please .请准时到这儿。 =Will you (please) come here on time ? 请你准时到好吗?

⒊ 含有第一、第三人称主语的祈使句

如:Let's say good-bye here. 我们在此道别吧。

Don't let him do that again. 别让他再那么做了。

祈使句有时相当一个“if”引导的条件状语从句。

祈使句:Use your head and you'll find a way.

条件句:If you use your head,you'll find a way.

注意回答 Let's~的反意疑问句句型时,肯定时用 Yes,let's.否定时用 NO,let's not.

5 祈使句后的反意疑问句形式

⒈ Let's 表示说话人向对提出建议,简短问句的主语用 we 表示,问句用 shall we 或 shan't we

如: Let's have a cup of tea ,shall we (shan't we) ?

⒉ Let me 或 Let us 表示听话人提出请求,问句用 will you 或 won't you.

如:Let me have a rest , will you (won't you ) ?

⒊ 其它的祈使句后可以加一个简短问句,使语气变得客气一些

如:Have a rest , will you?

Stand up , will (won't) you?

★ 感叹句

一般说来,感叹句是由what或how开头的,它有两个类型,六种句式。掌握了它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。

1 用what引导的感叹句有三种句式

此时,what 为形容词,用作定语,修饰它后面的名词或名词词组(即感叹部分是名词性短语)。

⒈ What +a/an 形容词+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!

如:What a fine day it is!多么好的天气啊!(辅音音素前用a)

What an old building that is!那是一栋多么破旧的楼房啊(元音音素前用an)

⒉ What+形容词+可数名词复数形式+主语+谓语!

如:What good teachers they are!他们是多么好的老师啊!

What beautiful flowers these are!这些是多么美丽的花啊!

⒊ What+形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语!

如:What thick ice we are having here!我们这儿的冰多厚啊!

What round bread it is!这是一块多么圆的面包啊!

2 用how 开头的感叹句也有三种句式

此时,how是副词,用作状语,修饰后面的形容词、副词或动词。

⒈ How+形容词+主语+谓语!(即谓语动词是连系动词)

如:How hot it is today!今天天气多热啊!

How beautiful the flowers are!这些花多么美丽啊!

⒉ How+副词+主语+谓语!

如:How hard he works!他工作多么努力啊!

How well she sings!她歌唱得多好啊!

⒊ How +主语+谓语!(即谓语动词是行为动词)

如:How she dances!她跳舞跳得多好啊!

注意:what和how引起的感叹句,在口语中常可以省略主语、谓语或其它句子成分。

如:How cold (it is)!

What a good girl What delicious fish!

3 陈述句变感叹句全解

判断是否使用冠词、使用什么样的冠词

如果名词不可数,摒弃a,an不留情:名词的复数形式和不可数名词之前不使用冠词,以元音音素开头的词语之前用an,以辅音音素开头的词语之前用a。

如:What beautiful sunshine it is today! (sunshine不可数名词)

What a useful book this is useful!(以辅音音素开头)

What an old house that is old!(以元音音素开头)

4 其它句式变感叹句

有时陈述句、疑问句(句中常有so或much)以及祈使句也可直接转化为感叹句,不需要改变词的位置,只要改变原来的音调(即变为降调)。

如:He's such a nice boy!多好的孩子!

How can you be so clever!你怎么这么聪明!

Don't go with us!刷和我们一起去!

Have you ever seen such a thing?你曾见过这种事情吗?

★ 主语

主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词前面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。

如:During the 1990s,American country music has become more and more popular.(名词)

We often speak English in class.(代词)

One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词)

Two swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式)

Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词)

The rich should he lp the poor.(名词化的形容词)

When me are going to have an Eaglish test has not been decided.(主语从句)

It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)

★ 谓语

谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下:

1 简单谓语

由一个动词或动词短语构成。

如:He practices running every morning.

2 复合谓语

⒈ 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。

如:You make the book for two weeks.

He has caught a bad cold.

⒉ 由系动词加表语构成。

如:We are students.

★ 表语

表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如be,becone,get,look,grow, turn,seem等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。

如:Our teacher of English is an American.(名词)

Is it yours?(代词)

The weather has turned cold.(形容词)

The speech is exciting.(分词)

Three times seven is twenty one?(数词)

His job is to teach Eaglish.(不定式)

His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词)

The machine must be out of order.(介词短语)

Time is up.The class is over.(副词)

The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句)

★ 宾语

1 宾语的位置

宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面

如:They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名词)

The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词)

How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词)

They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词)

He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语)

I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语)

I think (that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句)

2 宾语种类

⒈ 双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)

如:Lend me our dictionary, please.

⒉ 复合宾语(宾语+宾补)

如:They elected hin their monitor.

★ 定语

修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以下成分表示:

如:Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词)

China is a develceing country;America is a develcged country.(分词)

There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词)

His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词)

Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语)

The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词)

He is reading an article about how to learn Eaglish.(介词短语)

★ 状语

1 状语的作用

状语用来修饰形容词、副词、动词或者全句。

⒈ 修饰形容词

His performance is pretty good.他的表现非常好。

⒉ 修饰副词

The leopard runs very fast.美洲豹跑得非常快。

⒊ 修饰动词

The professor introduce himself briefly.教授简单地介绍了他自己。

⒋ 修饰全句

The accident happened last night.事故发生在昨天晚上。

2 状语的分类

⒈ 地点状语:动作或状态所处于的地点

The students are doing their homework in the classroom.学生们正在教室里做作业。

⒉ 时间状语:动作或状态所处于的时间

I learned a lot from the peasants when I lived in the countryside.我在农村生活时,向农民学到很多东西。

⒊ 目的状语:动作的目的

They set out early so that they might arrive on time.他们早点动身,以便准时到达。

⒋ 原因状语:动作或状态所处于的原因

She will not go home because she has to attend a meeting.因为要开会,所以她不能回家了。

⒌ 结果状语:动作或状态所产生的结果

Li Ming studied so hard that he caught up with the others very quickly.李明学习如此努力,结果很快赶上了其他人。

⒍ 程度状语:表示动作或状态的程度

I nearly forgot what he had promised.我几乎忘记了他答应的事。

⒎ 方式状语:做某事所用的方式

It is common to travel by air.乘飞机出行很普遍。

⒏ 条件状语:表示某事或某种状态变化的条件

If you work hard at English,you will do well in English.如果你努力学习英语,你的英语成绩就会好。

⒐ 让步状语:主句的行为或状态一定发生或存在,而状语又必须作出“让步”,那么,这种状语被称之为“让步状语”。

He went to school yesterday though he was ill.昨天他尽管有病,仍上学去了。

⒑ 比较状语:表示一个状态特征与另一个做对比。

Lesson Two is not so difficult as Lesson One.

★ 补语

补语(complement)是一种补足主语和宾语的意义的句子成分。补足主语意义的句子成分叫做主语补语(subject complement),补足宾语意义的句子成分叫做宾语补语(object complement)。

1 主语补足语

形容词用作主语补语是常置于主语之前,后有逗号。

如:Tired and sleepy, I went to bed. 我又累又困,就去睡了。

有时可以置于主语之后,前后都有逗号,与非限定性定语相似。

如: The man, cruel beyond belief, didn't listen to their pleadings. 那人不可置疑地残酷,不听取他们的恳求。

2 宾语补足语

可以用做宾语补语的有名词、形容词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语等。

如:They named the child Jimmy. 他们将孩子命名为吉米。(名词用作并与补语)

My mother looks so young that you would think her my sister. 我的母亲看起来很年轻,你会以为她是我的姐姐(名词短语作宾补)

He boiled the egg hard. 她将鸡蛋煮老了。(形容词用作宾补)

I found the book very interesting.我发现那本书很有趣。(形容词短语用作宾补)

The comrades wanted Dr.Bethune to take cover. 同志们要白求恩大夫隐蔽一下。(不定式用作宾语补语)

I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul.我把这个叫做拆东墙补西墙。(动名作宾补)

Don't take his kindness for granted.不要把他的友善看作是当然的事。(介词短语作宾补)

1 基本句型一:主谓结构

句式结构:主语十谓语(动词)

这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词:appear,apologize,arrive,come,die,disappear,fall,happen,rise等。

如:Li Ming works very hard.李明工作很努力。

The sun rises in the east.太阳从东方升起。

2 基本句型二:主谓宾结构

句式结构:主语+谓语(动词)+宾语

如:He found a bird in the tree.他发现树上有一只鸟。

I like this book.我喜欢这本书。

3 基本句型三:主系表结构

句式结构:主语+系动词+表语

常见的系动词有:be(是),get(变得),become(成为),turn(变得),look(看起来),feel(感到),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),sound(听起来),seem(似乎)

⒈ 表示状态的连系动词有be,look,seem,appear,smell,taste,sound,keep,remain等。

如:We should keep quiet any time.我们在任何时候都应该保持安静。

⒉ 表示转变或结果的系动词有:become,get,grow,turn,go,come,prove等。

如:Spring comes.It is warmer and warmer. 春天到了,天与恋得越来越暖和。

4 基本句型四

句式结构:主语十谓语(动词)十间接宾语“人”十直接宾语“物”结构,但若要先说出直接宾语(事物),咪咕视频体育直播后说间接宾语(人),则要借助于介词to或for。

⒈ 用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人;间接宾语前需要加to的常用动词有:bring,give,hand,lend,offer,pass,pay,read,sell,send,show,teach,tell wish,write等。

如:Can you send a letter to her?你可以寄一封信给她吗?

⒉ 用for侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人;间接宾语前需要加for的常用动词有:buy,choose,make,order,paint,play(演奏),sing,等。

如:He bought a piano for his sister.

5 基本句型五:主谓宾补结构

句式结构:主语+谓语+宾语+宾补

此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语。call(叫),choose(选),find(发现),make,name(命名)

如:She 咪咕直播nba在线观看 kept us waiting for over three hours.她让我们等了3个多小时。

We tried to make her happy.我们尽量使她高兴。

1 并列结构作主语时的主谓一致

⒈ 由and 连接主语时

and 连接的两个或多个单数可数名词、不可数名词或代词作主语时根据意义或概念确定谓语用单数或复数

① 并列主语表示不同的人、物或概念时谓语动词用复数

如:Like many others,the little tramp and the naughty boy have rushed there in search of gold.小流浪汉和调皮的小男孩也赶到那里寻找金子。

② 并列主语表示同一个人、物或概念时,谓语动词用单数形式

如:The professor and writer is speaking at the meeting.那位教授兼作家正在会上发言。

His lawyer and former college friend was with him on his trip to Europe.他的律师兼大学时代的朋友陪他去欧洲旅行。

注意:指同一个人或物时,并列主语前只用一个冠词;指不同的需要分别加冠词;但两个名词具有分别的对立的意思时只需要一个冠词即可

如:the writer and the educator have visited our school.

the writer and educator has visited our school.

A boy and girl are playing tennis.

③ 并列主语前有each,every,many a,no等修饰时谓语动词用单数

如:Each doctor and (each)nurse working in the hospital was asked to help patients.

Every man,woman and child is entitled to take part in the activity.

Every boy and (every)girl admires him for his fine sense of humour.

Many a boy and (many a)girl has made the same mistake.

No boy and no girl is there now.没有任何男孩和女孩在那里

注意:many a跟单数可数名词但是表示复数意义翻译为很多

如:Many a student was disappointed after seeing the movie.

④ 并列主语为不可分的整体时,谓语动词用单数

如:A law and rule about protecting environment has been drawn up.

The knife and fork has been washed.

War and peace is a constant theme in history.

注意;常被视为主体的结构

A cup and saucer一副杯碟

A horse and car马车

Aknife and fork一副刀叉

A law and rule法规

A needle and thread一套针线

Fish and chips炸鱼加炸薯条

The stars and stripes星条旗

⒉ 由(either)…or或neither…nor等连接的主语时

either…or;neither…nor;or;not only…but(also)…连接主语时,谓语动词陈述句中就近原则

如:Either you or Jane is to be sent to New York.

Neither you nor he has finished the experiment.

Not only the old farmer but also his family were friendly to me.

Not only his friends but also he himself is looking forward to taking part in the party.

⒊ 主语由肯定否定两部分构成谓语跟肯定部分走

如:Not you but I am to answer the question.

I,not you,am to answer the question.

2 单一主语的主谓一致

⒈ 名词本身自带s作主语时,谓语动词用单数

① 学科名词:physics物理;mathematics/maths 数学;economics 经济学;politics政治学;新闻news;体操Gymnastics

如:As we know,Physics is a fundamental subject in science.醒是自然科学中的一门基础学科。

Mathematics is a required course for middle school student.数学是中学生的一门必修课。

Einstein once said,"Politics is much more difficult than physics."

注意:当mathematics 表示运算时谓语动词用单数复数皆可

如:If my mathematics is/are right,the answer is 56.如果我的运算正确,答案就是56。

The television news is at 7clock in the evening every day.

Gymnastics is my sistes fav ourite sport.

② 有些名词单复数同行根据是单数概念还是复数概念判断谓语

如:means 方式方法

aircraft飞机

works 工厂

crossroads 十字路口

deer鹿

sheep羊

fish鱼

This works was build in 1982.

By far,three steelworks have been closed down in this city.

This means of transport has been tried.

All possible means have been tried.

③ 由两部分组成的物体名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数

如:chopsticks筷子

compasses圆规

glasses眼镜

gloves手套

Jeans牛仔裤

shoes鞋子

scissors剪子

shorts 短裤

socks短袜

trousers 裤子

My trousers are white and his clothes are black.我的裤子是白色的,他的衣服是黑色的。

Why are your shoes so dirty?

注意:如果这些词由单位词(a pair of,a suit of,a piece of,a kind of等)靠饰时,单位词的单复数决定谓语动词的单复数

如:A pair of scissors is lying in that drawer.

These kinds of glasses are popular this summer.

④ 表示国家、人名、书名、组织机构等的专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数

如:The united States is a developed country

The New York Times is widely read in the world.

⑤ 以-s结尾的群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等专有名词谓语动词用复数

如:The Himalayas have a magnificent variety of plants.植物种类繁多

The Niagara Falls are splendid waterfalls.

⑥ 以-s结尾的名词作主语时谓语动词用复数

如:belongings财产

clothes衣服

plastics塑料制品

eamings收入

goods货物

leavings剩余

savings储存

All the goods are very expensive.

⒉ 集体名词作主语时

① mankind,humanity,man 作主语时,谓语一般用单数

如:Only man knows how to cook.有人懂得烹饪

注意:mankind表示“人(类)”有时表示复数意义,其表语是复数。

如:Mankind are intelligent animals人是理智的动物.

② people,police,cattle,youte作主语时,只有单数形式,但却表示复数意义谓语动词用复数

如:The police are investigating the riot.

The cattle are grazing the the filed.

Many cattle were killed for this.

注意:people作民族讲时有复数形式。

如:There are 56 peoples in China.

③ family,crowd 等作主语时,根据概念确定谓语动词

这类集体名词有:Army;assembly; audience;band;class;club;committee;company;congress;youth crew;crowd enemy;family gang;govermment group herd;jury population;public team 强调整体,用单数谓语;强调个体,用复数谓语。

如:The family is going to move to New York.

The farmily have different opinions about their going abroad.

The football club committee arranges all the matches.

The football club committee have decided to dismiss him.

比较:

A family,a group,a class作主语时用单数谓语

Families,groups,classes作主语时用复数谓语

如:A group is coming to the zoo.人正朝着动物园走来。

④ baggage/luggage(行李),clothing(衣服),furniture(家具),machinery(机器),poetry(诗),scenery(风景),jewery(珠宝),equipment(设备)等,是不可数名词,只用单数形式,不用不定冠词(当然更不能用数词)

如:Our clothing protects us from (against) the cold.我们的衣服可以御寒。

Have you checked all your baggage?你所有行李都托运了吗?

注意:machinery,poetry,jewelry,scenery 等相应的个体可数名词是machine,poem,jewel,scene等。如:a poem/a piece of poetry(一首诗),many machines/much machinery /many pieces of machinery(许多机器)

⑤ hair的用法

hair(头发,毛发)指全部头发或毛发时,为集合名词(可数);指几根头发或毛发时,为个体名词(可数)。

如:My hair has grown very long.我的头发已长得很长了.

The police found two hairs there.警察在那儿找到了两根头发.

⑥ fruit的用法

fruit(水果)作为集合名词它通常是不可数的。

如:He doesn't eat much fruit.他不大吃水果.

He is growing fruit in the country.他在乡下种水果.

但是,当要表示种类时,它可视为可数名词,即a fruit 指一种水果,fruits指多种水果。

比较:Some fruits have thick skins.有些水果皮很厚。

⒊ 非谓语动词或从句作主语时

① 非谓语动词或从句作主语时谓语动词用单数

如:To improve agricultural land needs a lot of money.

To see is to believe.

Swimming is a good way to keep health.

How they will solve the problem remains to be seen.

Whether she will come is not known.

② 多个非谓语动词作主语,表达一个概念谓语用单数,表达不同概念谓语用复数

如:Going to be early and getting up early is good for your health.(早睡早起一个概念)

Reading books and playing table tennis are my great pleasure.(读书和打乒乓球是两个概念)

Listening,speaking,reading and writing are all important.

To be strict with oneself and to be kind to others are good qualities of a person.

3 其他情况的主谓一致

⒈ 表示距离、时间、长度、金额、质量等的复数名词作主语时常被看作是整体谓语动词用单数。

这类复数名词有:miles,dollars,pounds,kilograms公斤/千克,kilometres公里,centimetres厘米,millimetres 毫米,seconds,hours,years等

如:Five dollars seems a fair price.是一个公道的价格

Two kilometres is not very far for the young man

Five hours is a short time for such a difficult job

⒉ 如果强调数目谓语动词用复数

如:One hundred cents make a dollar.

More than twenty years have passed since they got married.

⒊ 算数中的谓语动词一般用单数形式,有时也用复数

如:Five times eight is/are forty

Four and eight makes/make twelve

Sixty minus seven leaves fifty-three

Forty-eight divided by six is eight

⒋ 复合不定代词作主语时谓语动词用单数

如:Everyone something anybody nowhere.

Everyone in the class was surprised at the news.

Listen!Someone is knocking at the door.

Is anyone going to tell him the news?

⒌ each one of…,every one of…,anyone of…,one of…等作主语时谓语用单数

如:Each of the girl in our class has a balioon.我们班每个女孩都有一个气球

Each of the students was asked to speak for three minutes.

Every one of them is familiar to me.截对他们都很熟悉

⒍ each,every作形容词修饰主语时谓语动词用单数,但是each作复数主语的同位语时谓语用复数

如:Each/Every boy in our class has a skateboard.副滑板

They each have a stateboard.

Each/Every student has an English-Chinese dictionary.

The students each have an English-Chinese dictionary.

⒎ none of +不可数名词,谓语用单数;none of,neither of+可数名词复数/复数代词,谓语动词单复数皆可。

either of/None of that money in the desk is his.(不数名词)

None of his classmates knows the truth.=None of his classmates know the truth.

Neither of the statements is true =Neither of the statements are ture.两种说法没有一个真实。

如:Either of the qualifications is acceptable=Either of the qualifications are acceptable.

⒏ neither 与either 做形容词修饰单数名词时谓语动词用单数

如:Either qualification is acceptable.两种资格中的任何一种都可以接受

Neither qualification is acceptable.

⒐ 分数百分数+of+名词,some of,plenty of,a lot of,lots of,most of,the rest of,all(of),half(of)谓语常与of 后面的名词一致;分数百分数+of+复数名词/复数代词,谓语动词用复数;分数/百分数+of+单数名词/单数代词,谓语动词用单数

如:Two thirds of the students support the plan.(复数名词)

One tenth of them are suffering from this kind of illness.(复数代词)

Three fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.(单数名词)

Eighty percent of the employees in the company are from Bejing.(百分数数复数名词)

Thirty percent of its area is flooded each year.(百分数单数名词)

The rest of the money belongs to you.

The rest of the students speak for it.

Half of the apple is rotten.

Half of the apples are rotten.

⒑ “more than one单数名词”结构作主语,尽管从意义上看是复数,但它的谓语动词用单数形式;“more+复数名词+than one”结构作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

r如:More than one person has known the news.不止一个人知道了这个消息。

More students than one are for your proposal.很多学生同意你的计划。

⒒ a number of +复数名词谓语用复数(许多的);The number of 名词谓语动词用单数(…的数量)

如:A number of trees are green in April.

Agreat number of tourists have been to the Great Wall.

A large number of worker were out of work because the factory was destroyed in flood.

The number of students in the computer class is limited to ten.

The nunber of workers who were out of work was 1,000.

⒓ there/here...引导句子时就近原则

如:There are some chairs and a table in the room。

There is a table and some chairs in the room。

Here are some gifts for you。

Here is a book,a pen and some paper for you.

⒔ 当主语后接修饰语时

With,along with,together with,but,besides,except,like,including,in addition to,as well as,rather than,谓语动词与前面的主语保持一致

如:A library with five thousand books is offered to the nation as a gift.被作为礼物送给了这个国家。

The teacher,along with her students,is going to attend the lecture.

Apeasant,together with some soldiers,is about to help us.

All but one have arrived here.除了一个人外所有人都到了。

No one except two students was late for class.没有其他人上课迟到

The garage,in addition to the house,was burned.

She as well as the other girls is going to another supermarked.

You as well as I are wrong.

The father,rather than the brother,is responsible.父亲而不是兄弟们应当负责。

⒕ The+形容词做主语时,表示一类人用复数谓语,表示抽象概念用单数谓语

如:The injured were carried away on stretchers.跟担架抬走了

The old are more likely to catch cold than the young.

The rich are for the decision but the poor are against it.

The young are always full of vitality.

The unknown is always something to be feared.

The beautiful is not always the good,and the good is not always the true.美未必是善善未必是真

The true is to be distinguished from the false.真应与假相区别

The good is what people like.人们总是喜欢美好的东西

In many stories,the good are well rewarded and the bad are punished.好人有好报坏人有坏报。

⒖ all 做主语时指一切表示单数概念用单数谓语,指具体人或物用复数谓语

如:All has been tried.一切都试过了

All were silent.大家都一言不发

All was silent.万籁俱寂

All are here now.大家都在

⒗ 由 a kind of,this kind of,many kinds of,名词+of this kind,a type of a sort of谓语动词根据of 后面的名词来定

如:A new type of machine is on show now.

Machines of this kind are made in Wuhan.

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